Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt.Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively marking the end of the Roman Republic.The imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era.The first two centuries of the empire's existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace".
Chemistry, biology, and physiology have also their laws.
Under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus.
After Claudius' successor, Nero, committed suicide in AD 68, the empire suffered a series of brief civil wars, as well as a concurrent major rebellion in Judea, during which four different legionary generals were proclaimed emperor.
Wood and metal images represented ancestral spirits, and no distinction was made between the spirits and their physical symbol.
Reward or punishment after death was dependent upon behavior in this life.